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Sphere Motion E-mail
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This Java tip contains a code snippet which shows how to create speheres add them transformation behaviors in a scene with different light sources.


Image

import java.applet.Applet;
import java.awt.BorderLayout;
import java.awt.GraphicsConfiguration;

import javax.media.j3d.Alpha;
import javax.media.j3d.AmbientLight;
import javax.media.j3d.Appearance;
import javax.media.j3d.Background;
import javax.media.j3d.BoundingSphere;
import javax.media.j3d.BranchGroup;
import javax.media.j3d.Canvas3D;
import javax.media.j3d.ColoringAttributes;
import javax.media.j3d.DirectionalLight;
import javax.media.j3d.Light;
import javax.media.j3d.Material;
import javax.media.j3d.PointLight;
import javax.media.j3d.PositionInterpolator;
import javax.media.j3d.RotationInterpolator;
import javax.media.j3d.SpotLight;
import javax.media.j3d.Transform3D;
import javax.media.j3d.TransformGroup;
import javax.vecmath.Color3f;
import javax.vecmath.Point3d;
import javax.vecmath.Point3f;
import javax.vecmath.Vector3d;
import javax.vecmath.Vector3f;

import com.sun.j3d.utils.applet.MainFrame;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.Sphere;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.SimpleUniverse;

public class SphereMotion extends Applet {

  // Constants for type of light to use
  private static final int DIRECTIONAL_LIGHT = 0;

  private static final int POINT_LIGHT = 1;

  private static final int SPOT_LIGHT = 2;

  // Flag indicates type of lights: directional, point, or spot
  // lights. This flag is set based on command line argument
  private static int lightType = POINT_LIGHT;

  private SimpleUniverse u = null;

  public BranchGroup createSceneGraph(SimpleUniverse u) {
    Color3f eColor = new Color3f(0.0f0.0f0.0f);
    Color3f sColor = new Color3f(1.0f1.0f1.0f);
    Color3f objColor = new Color3f(0.6f0.6f0.6f);
    Color3f lColor1 = new Color3f(1.0f0.0f0.0f);
    Color3f lColor2 = new Color3f(0.0f1.0f0.0f);
    Color3f alColor = new Color3f(0.2f0.2f0.2f);
    Color3f bgColor = new Color3f(0.05f0.05f0.2f);

    Transform3D t;

    // Create the root of the branch graph
    BranchGroup objRoot = new BranchGroup();

    // Create a Transformgroup to scale all objects so they
    // appear in the scene.
    TransformGroup objScale = new TransformGroup();
    Transform3D t3d = new Transform3D();
    t3d.setScale(0.4);
    objScale.setTransform(t3d);
    objRoot.addChild(objScale);

    // Create a bounds for the background and lights
    BoundingSphere bounds = new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.00.00.0),
        100.0);

    // Set up the background
    Background bg = new Background(bgColor);
    bg.setApplicationBounds(bounds);
    objScale.addChild(bg);

    // Create a Sphere object, generate one copy of the sphere,
    // and add it into the scene graph.
    Material m = new Material(objColor, eColor, objColor, sColor, 100.0f);
    Appearance a = new Appearance();
    m.setLightingEnable(true);
    a.setMaterial(m);
    Sphere sph = new Sphere(1.0f, Sphere.GENERATE_NORMALS, 80, a);
    objScale.addChild(sph);

    // Create the transform group node for the each light and initialize
    // it to the identity. Enable the TRANSFORM_WRITE capability so that
    // our behavior code can modify it at runtime. Add them to the root
    // of the subgraph.
    TransformGroup l1RotTrans = new TransformGroup();
    l1RotTrans.setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);
    objScale.addChild(l1RotTrans);

    TransformGroup l2RotTrans = new TransformGroup();
    l2RotTrans.setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);
    objScale.addChild(l2RotTrans);

    // Create transformations for the positional lights
    t = new Transform3D();
    Vector3d lPos1 = new Vector3d(0.00.02.0);
    t.set(lPos1);
    TransformGroup l1Trans = new TransformGroup(t);
    l1RotTrans.addChild(l1Trans);

    t = new Transform3D();
    Vector3d lPos2 = new Vector3d(0.50.82.0);
    t.set(lPos2);
    TransformGroup l2Trans = new TransformGroup(t);
    l2RotTrans.addChild(l2Trans);

    // Create Geometry for point lights
    ColoringAttributes caL1 = new ColoringAttributes();
    ColoringAttributes caL2 = new ColoringAttributes();
    caL1.setColor(lColor1);
    caL2.setColor(lColor2);
    Appearance appL1 = new Appearance();
    Appearance appL2 = new Appearance();
    appL1.setColoringAttributes(caL1);
    appL2.setColoringAttributes(caL2);
    l1Trans.addChild(new Sphere(0.05f, appL1));
    l2Trans.addChild(new Sphere(0.05f, appL2));

    // Create lights
    AmbientLight aLgt = new AmbientLight(alColor);

    Light lgt1 = null;
    Light lgt2 = null;

    Point3f lPoint = new Point3f(0.0f0.0f0.0f);
    Point3f atten = new Point3f(1.0f0.0f0.0f);
    Vector3f lDirect1 = new Vector3f(lPos1);
    Vector3f lDirect2 = new Vector3f(lPos2);
    lDirect1.negate();
    lDirect2.negate();

    switch (lightType) {
    case DIRECTIONAL_LIGHT:
      lgt1 = new DirectionalLight(lColor1, lDirect1);
      lgt2 = new DirectionalLight(lColor2, lDirect2);
      break;
    case POINT_LIGHT:
      lgt1 = new PointLight(lColor1, lPoint, atten);
      lgt2 = new PointLight(lColor2, lPoint, atten);
      break;
    case SPOT_LIGHT:
      lgt1 = new SpotLight(lColor1, lPoint, atten, lDirect1,
          25.0f (floatMath.PI / 180.0f10.0f);
      lgt2 = new SpotLight(lColor2, lPoint, atten, lDirect2,
          25.0f (floatMath.PI / 180.0f10.0f);
      break;
    }

    // Set the influencing bounds
    aLgt.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
    lgt1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
    lgt2.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);

    // Add the lights into the scene graph
    objScale.addChild(aLgt);
    l1Trans.addChild(lgt1);
    l2Trans.addChild(lgt2);

    // Create a new Behavior object that will perform the desired
    // operation on the specified transform object and add it into the
    // scene graph.
    Transform3D yAxis = new Transform3D();
    Alpha rotor1Alpha = new Alpha(-1, Alpha.INCREASING_ENABLE, 004000,
        00000);
    RotationInterpolator rotator1 = new RotationInterpolator(rotor1Alpha,
        l1RotTrans, yAxis, 0.0f(floatMath.PI * 2.0f);
    rotator1.setSchedulingBounds(bounds);
    l1RotTrans.addChild(rotator1);

    // Create a new Behavior object that will perform the desired
    // operation on the specified transform object and add it into the
    // scene graph.
    Alpha rotor2Alpha = new Alpha(-1, Alpha.INCREASING_ENABLE, 001000,
        00000);
    RotationInterpolator rotator2 = new RotationInterpolator(rotor2Alpha,
        l2RotTrans, yAxis, 0.0f0.0f);
    bounds = new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.00.00.0)100.0);
    rotator2.setSchedulingBounds(bounds);
    l2RotTrans.addChild(rotator2);

    // Create a position interpolator and attach it to the view
    // platform
    TransformGroup vpTrans = u.getViewingPlatform()
        .getViewPlatformTransform();
    Transform3D axisOfTranslation = new Transform3D();
    Alpha transAlpha = new Alpha(-1, Alpha.INCREASING_ENABLE
        | Alpha.DECREASING_ENABLE, 00500000500000);
    axisOfTranslation.rotY(-Math.PI / 2.0);
    PositionInterpolator translator = new PositionInterpolator(transAlpha,
        vpTrans, axisOfTranslation, 2.0f3.5f);
    translator.setSchedulingBounds(bounds);
    objScale.addChild(translator);

    // Let Java 3D perform optimizations on this scene graph.
    objRoot.compile();

    return objRoot;
  }

  public SphereMotion() {
  }

  public void init() {
    setLayout(new BorderLayout());
    GraphicsConfiguration config = SimpleUniverse
        .getPreferredConfiguration();

    Canvas3D c = new Canvas3D(config);
    add("Center", c);

    u = new SimpleUniverse(c);
    BranchGroup scene = createSceneGraph(u);

    // This will move the ViewPlatform back a bit so the
    // objects in the scene can be viewed.
    u.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();

    u.addBranchGraph(scene);
  }

  public void destroy() {
    u.cleanup();
  }

  //
  // The following allows SphereMotion to be run as an application
  // as well as an applet
  //
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    // Parse the Input Arguments
    String usage = "Usage: java SphereMotion [-point | -spot | -dir]";
    for (int i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
      if (args[i].startsWith("-")) {
        if (args[i].equals("-point")) {
          System.out.println("Using point lights");
          lightType = POINT_LIGHT;
        else if (args[i].equals("-spot")) {
          System.out.println("Using spot lights");
          lightType = SPOT_LIGHT;
        else if (args[i].equals("-dir")) {
          System.out.println("Using directional lights");
          lightType = DIRECTIONAL_LIGHT;
        else {
          System.out.println(usage);
          System.exit(0);
        }
      else {
        System.out.println(usage);
        System.exit(0);
      }
    }

    new MainFrame(new SphereMotion()700700);
  }
}

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