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Creating a geometric background in Java3D E-mail
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This tip is an example of creating a geometric background in a Java 3D program.

This program creates a geometric background of stars and one constellation. Also created in the scene is a grid of green lines. These represent a horizontal surface (the ground) in in the local area. It is provided for a reference for movement in the scene.

The viewer can move in this virtual world using the arrow keys. The movement is provided by the KeyNavigator class.

This example also uses a BoundingLeaf object for the application bounds for the KeyNavigatorBehavior class. There is a bug kludge in this code. See below for more details.


Image

import java.applet.Applet;
import java.awt.BorderLayout;
import java.awt.Frame;
import java.awt.Window;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.GraphicsConfiguration;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.applet.MainFrame;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.*;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import javax.media.j3d.*;
import javax.vecmath.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.AWTEvent;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.behaviors.keyboard.*;

/*
 * BackgroundApp is an example of creating a geometric background in a Java 3D
 * program.
 
 * This program creates a geometric background of stars and one constellation.
 * Also created in the scene is a grid of green lines. These represent a
 * horizontal surface (the ground) in in the local area. It is provided for a
 * reference for movement in the scene.
 
 * The viewer can move in this virtual world using the arrow keys. The movement
 * is provided by the KeyNavigator class.
 
 * This example also uses a BoundingLeaf object for the application bounds for
 * the KeyNavigatorBehavior class. There is a bug kludge in this code. See below
 * for more details.
 
 * This program was created as a companion to the Java 3D API tutorial available
 * from the Java 3D API homepage.
 
 * Background and BoundingLeaf classes are documented in Chapter 3. Interaction,
 * in general, and KeyNavigator class, specifically, are documented in Chapter
 * 4.
 
 * The first 200 lines (or so) of code simply create the geometry for the
 * background and the rest of the view.
 
 * There is no guarantee that any of the stars nor the constellation is an
 * accurate representation of the the view from earth.
 */

public class BackgroundApp extends Applet {

  Shape3D createLand() {
    LineArray landGeom = new LineArray(44, GeometryArray.COORDINATES
        | GeometryArray.COLOR_3);
    float l = -50.0f;
    for (int c = 0; c < 44; c += 4) {

      landGeom.setCoordinate(c + 0new Point3f(-50.0f0.0f, l));
      landGeom.setCoordinate(c + 1new Point3f(50.0f0.0f, l));
      landGeom.setCoordinate(c + 2new Point3f(l, 0.0f, -50.0f));
      landGeom.setCoordinate(c + 3new Point3f(l, 0.0f50.0f));
      l += 10.0f;
    }

    Color3f c = new Color3f(0.1f0.8f0.1f);
    for (int i = 0; i < 44; i++)
      landGeom.setColor(i, c);

    return new Shape3D(landGeom);
  }

  public BranchGroup createSceneGraph(SimpleUniverse su) {
    // Create the root of the branch graph
    BranchGroup objRootBG = new BranchGroup();

    Vector3f translate = new Vector3f();
    Transform3D T3D = new Transform3D();

    translate.set(0.0f, -0.3f0.0f);
    T3D.setTranslation(translate);
    TransformGroup objRoot = new TransformGroup(T3D);
    objRootBG.addChild(objRoot);

    objRoot.addChild(createLand());

    BoundingLeaf boundingLeaf = new BoundingLeaf(new BoundingSphere());

    PlatformGeometry platformGeom = new PlatformGeometry();
    platformGeom.addChild(boundingLeaf);
    platformGeom.compile();
    su.getViewingPlatform().setPlatformGeometry(platformGeom);

    KeyNavigatorBehavior keyNavBeh = new KeyNavigatorBehavior(su
        .getViewingPlatform().getViewPlatformTransform());
    keyNavBeh.setSchedulingBoundingLeaf(boundingLeaf);
    objRootBG.addChild(keyNavBeh);

    Background background = new Background();
    background.setApplicationBounds(new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(),
        1000.0));
    background.setGeometry(createBackGraph());
    objRoot.addChild(background);

    AmbientLight ambientLight = new AmbientLight();
    ambientLight.setInfluencingBounds(new BoundingSphere());
    objRootBG.addChild(ambientLight);

    return objRootBG;
  // end of CreateSceneGraph method

  /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

  public BranchGroup createBackGraph() {

    // Create the root of the branch graph
    BranchGroup objRoot = new BranchGroup();

    PointArray starGeom1 = new PointArray(7, PointArray.COORDINATES);
    Appearance starAppear1 = new Appearance();
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(0new Point3f(0.79483311f, -0.58810995f,
        0.14955615f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(1new Point3f(0.44430932f, -0.55736839f,
        -0.70137505f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(2new Point3f(0.94901367f, -0.30404968f,
        0.08322775f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(3new Point3f(0.68060123f, -0.43044807f,
        0.59287173f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(4new Point3f(-0.11641672f0.47273532f,
        0.87348049f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(5new Point3f(-0.10399289f, -0.98059412f,
        0.16619437f));
    starGeom1.setCoordinate(6new Point3f(0.08024400f, -0.96944100f,
        -0.23182900f));
    PointAttributes point1 = new PointAttributes(4.0ffalse);
    starAppear1.setPointAttributes(point1);
    objRoot.addChild(new Shape3D(starGeom1, starAppear1));

    PointArray starGeom2 = new PointArray(18, PointArray.COORDINATES);
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(0,
        new Point3f(0.050844f, -0.992329f0.112678f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(1new Point3f(-0.063091f, -0.997672f,
        0.025869f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(2,
        new Point3f(0.096706f, -0.980384f0.171736f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(3,
        new Point3f(-0.562384f0.073568f0.823595f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(4,
        new Point3f(-0.863904f0.059045f0.500180f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(5,
        new Point3f(-0.727033f0.304149f0.615559f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(6,
        new Point3f(-0.724850f0.535590f0.433281f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(7new Point3f(0.185904f, -0.976907f,
        -0.105311f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(8new Point3f(0.738028f, -0.531886f,
        -0.415221f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(9new Point3f(-0.402152f0.392690f,
        -0.827085f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(10new Point3f(-0.020020f, -0.999468f,
        -0.025724f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(11new Point3f(-0.384103f, -0.887075f,
        0.256050f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(12new Point3f(-0.224464f, -0.968946f,
        -0.103720f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(13new Point3f(-0.828880f, -0.397932f,
        -0.393203f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(14new Point3f(-0.010557f, -0.998653f,
        0.050797f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(15new Point3f(-0.282122f0.258380f,
        -0.923930f));
    starGeom2.setCoordinate(16new Point3f(-0.941342f, -0.030364f,
        0.336082f));
    starGeom2
        .setCoordinate(17new Point3f(0.00057f, -0.99651f, -0.08344f));
    Appearance starAppear2 = new Appearance();
    PointAttributes point2 = new PointAttributes(2.0ffalse);
    starAppear2.setPointAttributes(point2);
    objRoot.addChild(new Shape3D(starGeom2, starAppear2));

    PointArray starGeom3 = new PointArray(20, PointArray.COORDINATES);
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(0new Point3f(0.07292f, -0.98862f, -0.13153f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(1new Point3f(0.23133f, -0.87605f, -0.42309f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(2new Point3f(-0.08215f, -0.64657f0.75840f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(3new Point3f(-0.84545f0.53398f0.00691f));
    starGeom3
        .setCoordinate(4new Point3f(-0.49365f, -0.83645f, -0.23795f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(5new Point3f(0.06883f, -0.99319f, -0.09396f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(6new Point3f(0.87582f, -0.40662f0.25997f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(7new Point3f(-0.09095f, -0.99555f0.02467f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(8new Point3f(0.45306f, -0.81575f, -0.35955f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(9new Point3f(0.17669f, -0.97939f0.09776f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(10new Point3f(0.27421f, -0.83963f0.46884f));
    starGeom3
        .setCoordinate(11new Point3f(0.32703f, -0.94013f, -0.09584f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(12,
        new Point3f(-0.01615f, -0.99798f, -0.06132f));
    starGeom3
        .setCoordinate(13new Point3f(-0.76665f0.45998f, -0.44791f));
    starGeom3
        .setCoordinate(14new Point3f(-0.91025f, -0.07102f0.40791f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(15,
        new Point3f(-0.00240f, -0.97104f, -0.23887f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(16new Point3f(0.91936f, -0.39244f0.02740f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(17new Point3f(0.18290f, -0.97993f0.07920f));
    starGeom3.setCoordinate(18new Point3f(-0.48755f0.61592f0.61884f));
    starGeom3
        .setCoordinate(19new Point3f(-0.89375f0.36087f, -0.26626f));
    objRoot.addChild(new Shape3D(starGeom3));

    int[] stripCount = 10 };
    LineStripArray orion = new LineStripArray(10,
        LineStripArray.COORDINATES, stripCount);
    orion.setCoordinate(0new Point3f(0.978330f, -0.033900f0.204426f));
    orion.setCoordinate(1new Point3f(0.968007f, -0.167860f0.186506f));
    orion.setCoordinate(2new Point3f(0.981477f, -0.142660f0.127873f));
    orion.setCoordinate(3new Point3f(0.983764f, -0.005220f0.179391f));
    orion.setCoordinate(4new Point3f(0.981112f0.110597f0.158705f));
    orion.setCoordinate(5new Point3f(0.967377f0.172516f0.185523f));
    orion.setCoordinate(6new Point3f(0.961385f0.128845f0.243183f));
    orion.setCoordinate(7new Point3f(0.978330f, -0.033900f0.204426f));
    orion.setCoordinate(8new Point3f(0.981293f, -0.020980f0.191375f));
    orion.setCoordinate(9new Point3f(0.983764f, -0.005220f0.179391f));
    objRoot.addChild(new Shape3D(orion));

    objRoot.compile();
    return objRoot;
  // end of CreateBackGraph method

  /////////////////////BackgroundApp//////////////////////
  public BackgroundApp() {
    setLayout(new BorderLayout());
    GraphicsConfiguration config = SimpleUniverse
        .getPreferredConfiguration();

    Canvas3D canvas3D = new Canvas3D(config);
    canvas3D.setStereoEnable(false);
    add("Center", canvas3D);

    // SimpleUniverse is a Convenience Utility class
    SimpleUniverse simpleU = new SimpleUniverse(canvas3D);

    BranchGroup scene = createSceneGraph(simpleU);

    // This will move the ViewPlatform back a bit so the
    // objects in the scene can be viewed.
    simpleU.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();

    simpleU.addBranchGraph(scene);
    new OtherView(simpleU.getLocale())/* see note below */
  // end of BackgroundApp (constructor)

  /*
   * This class was created to make the boundingleaf work for this example
   * program. One OtherView object is created just a couple of lines above.
   * Inserting a second frame in the scene makes the BoundingLeaf object work
   * as desired.
   */

  public class OtherView extends Object {
    public TransformGroup vpTrans;

    public OtherView(Locale locale) {
      GraphicsConfiguration config = SimpleUniverse
          .getPreferredConfiguration();

      Canvas3D canvas3D = new Canvas3D(config);
      canvas3D.setStereoEnable(false);
      PhysicalBody body = new PhysicalBody();
      PhysicalEnvironment environment = new PhysicalEnvironment();
      View view = new View();
      view.setPhysicalBody(body);
      view.setPhysicalEnvironment(environment);
      BranchGroup vpRoot = new BranchGroup();
      Transform3D viewT3D = new Transform3D();
      viewT3D.set(new Vector3f(0.0f0.0f2.0f));
      ViewPlatform vp = new ViewPlatform();
      vpTrans = new TransformGroup(viewT3D);
      vpTrans.addChild(vp);
      vpRoot.addChild(vpTrans);
      view.attachViewPlatform(vp);
      locale.addBranchGraph(vpRoot);
    }
  // end of OtherView class

  //  The following allows this to be run as an application
  //  as well as an applet

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    System.out
        .println("BackgroundApp.java - a demonstration of placing geometry");
    System.out.println("in the background of a Java 3D scene.");
    System.out
        .println("When the app loads, you can use the arrow keys to move.");
    System.out.println("The Java 3D Tutorial is available on the web at:");
    System.out
        .println("http://java.sun.com/products/java-media/3D/collateral");
    Frame frame = new MainFrame(new BackgroundApp()256256);
  // end of main (method of BackgroundApp)

// end of class BackgroundApp

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