glColorMaterial causes a material color to track the current color. After initialization, this program will be in ColorMaterial mode. Pressing the mouse buttons will change the color of the diffuse reflection. The example is ported from C examples in the OpenGL Programming Guide (known as the "red book").

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 package glredbook10;

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.text.ChangedCharSetException;

import java.nio.*;

import javax.media.opengl.*;
import javax.media.opengl.glu.*;
import com.sun.opengl.util.*; 

/**
 * After initialization, the program will be in ColorMaterial mode. Pressing the
 * mouse buttons will change the color of the diffuse reflection.
 * 
 * @author Kiet Le (Java conversion)
 */
public class colormat
  extends JFrame
    implements GLEventListener, KeyListener, MouseListener
{
  private GLU glu;
  private GLUT glut;
  private GLCapabilities caps;
  private GLCanvas canvas; 
  private float diffuseMaterial[] =
  { 0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f, 1.0f };
  private boolean diffuseColorChanged = false;

 
  public colormat()
  {
    super("colormat");
    
    caps = new GLCapabilities();
    canvas = new GLCanvas(caps);
    canvas.addGLEventListener(this);
    canvas.addKeyListener(this);
    canvas.addMouseListener(this);
 
    getContentPane().add(canvas);
  }

  public void run()
  {
    setSize(500, 500);
    setLocationRelativeTo(null);
    setDefaultCloseOperation(JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
    setVisible(true);
    canvas.requestFocusInWindow();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
    new colormat().run();
  }

  /*
   * Initialize values for material property, light source, lighting model, and
   * depth buffer.
   */
  public void init(GLAutoDrawable drawable)
  {
    GL gl = drawable.getGL();
    glu = new GLU();
    glut = new GLUT();
  
    float mat_specular[] =
    { 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f };
    float light_position[] =
    { 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f };

    gl.glMaterialfv(GL.GL_FRONT, GL.GL_DIFFUSE, diffuseMaterial, 0);
    gl.glMaterialfv(GL.GL_FRONT, GL.GL_SPECULAR, mat_specular, 0);
    gl.glMaterialf(GL.GL_FRONT, GL.GL_SHININESS, 25.0f);
    gl.glLightfv(GL.GL_LIGHT0, GL.GL_POSITION, light_position, 0);

    gl.glEnable(GL.GL_LIGHTING);
    gl.glEnable(GL.GL_LIGHT0);
    gl.glDepthFunc(GL.GL_LESS);
    gl.glEnable(GL.GL_DEPTH_TEST);

    gl.glColorMaterial(GL.GL_FRONT, GL.GL_DIFFUSE);
    gl.glEnable(GL.GL_COLOR_MATERIAL);
  }

  public void display(GLAutoDrawable drawable)
  {
    GL gl = drawable.getGL();
 
    gl.glClear(GL.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL.GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);

    if (diffuseColorChanged)
    {
      gl.glColor4fv(diffuseMaterial, 0);
      diffuseColorChanged = !diffuseColorChanged;
    }

    glut.glutSolidSphere(1.0f, 10, 10);
    gl.glFlush();
  }

  public void reshape(GLAutoDrawable drawable, int x, int y, int w, int h)
  {
    GL gl = drawable.getGL();

    gl.glViewport(0, 0, w, h);
    gl.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_PROJECTION);
    gl.glLoadIdentity();
    if (w <= h) gl.glOrtho(-1.5, 1.5, -1.5 * (float) h / (float) w,
        1.5 * (float) h / (float) w, -10.0, 10.0);
    else gl.glOrtho(-1.5 * (float) w / (float) h, 1.5 * (float) w / (float) h,
        -1.5, 1.5, -10.0, 10.0);
    gl.glMatrixMode(GL.GL_MODELVIEW);
    gl.glLoadIdentity();
  }

  public void displayChanged(GLAutoDrawable drawable, boolean modeChanged,
      boolean deviceChanged)
  {
  }

  private void changeRedDiffuse()
  {
    diffuseMaterial[0] += 0.1;
    if (diffuseMaterial[0] > 1.0) diffuseMaterial[0] = 0.0f;
    // gl.glColor4fv(diffuseMaterial, 0);
  }

  private void changeGreenDiffuse()
  {
    diffuseMaterial[1] += 0.1;
    if (diffuseMaterial[1] > 1.0) diffuseMaterial[1] = 0.0f;
    // gl.glColor4fv(diffuseMaterial, 0);
  }

  private void changeBlueDiffuse()
  {
    diffuseMaterial[2] += 0.1;
    if (diffuseMaterial[2] > 1.0) diffuseMaterial[2] = 0.0f;
    // gl.glColor4fv(diffuseMaterial, 0);
  }

  public void keyTyped(KeyEvent key)
  {
  }

  public void keyPressed(KeyEvent key)
  {
    switch (key.getKeyChar()) {
      case KeyEvent.VK_ESCAPE:
        System.exit(0);
        break;

      default:
        break;
    }
  }

  public void keyReleased(KeyEvent key)
  {
  }

  public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent mouse)
  {
  }

  public void mousePressed(MouseEvent mouse)
  {
    switch (mouse.getButton()) {
      case MouseEvent.BUTTON1:
        changeRedDiffuse();
        diffuseColorChanged = true;
        break;
      case MouseEvent.BUTTON2:
        changeGreenDiffuse();
        diffuseColorChanged = true;
        break;
      case MouseEvent.BUTTON3:
        changeBlueDiffuse();
        diffuseColorChanged = true;
        break;
      default:
        break;
    }
    canvas.display();
  }

  public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent mouse)
  {
  }

  public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent mouse)
  {
  }

  public void mouseExited(MouseEvent mouse)
  {
  }

}

Source: Kiet Le's The Red Book Examples using JOGL