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How to create an e-mail client in Java E-mail
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e-mail client in Java

This Java tips shows how to create an email client in Java. You will need JavaMail API to compile this example. You can download it from here.

The example contains the following files/classes:

  • EmailClient: The main class for the e-mail client application
  • ConnectDialog: This class displays a dialog for entering e-mail server connection settings.
  • MessagesTableModel: This class manages the e-mail table's data.>
  • MessageDialog: This class displays the dialog used for creating messages.
  • DownloadingDialog: This class displays a simple dialog instructing the user that messages are being downloaded.

The contents of the classes are written below:

EmailClient:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.net.*;
import java.util.*;
import javax.mail.*;
import javax.mail.internet.*;
import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.event.*;

// The E-mail Client.
public class EmailClient extends JFrame {
    
    // Message table's data model.
    private MessagesTableModel tableModel;
    
    // Table listing messages.
    private JTable table;
    
    // This the text area for displaying messages.
    private JTextArea messageTextArea;
    
  /* This is the split panel that holds the messages
     table and the message view panel. */
    private JSplitPane splitPane;
    
    // These are the buttons for managing the selected message.
    private JButton replyButton, forwardButton, deleteButton;
    
    // Currently selected message in table.
    private Message selectedMessage;
    
    // Flag for whether or not a message is being deleted.
    private boolean deleting;
    
    // This is the JavaMail session.
    private Session session;
    
    // Constructor for E-mail Client.
    public EmailClient() {
        // Set application title.
        setTitle("E-mail Client");
        
        // Set window size.
        setSize(640480);
        
        // Handle window closing events.
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                actionExit();
            }
        });
        
        // Setup file menu.
        JMenuBar menuBar = new JMenuBar();
        JMenu fileMenu = new JMenu("File");
        fileMenu.setMnemonic(KeyEvent.VK_F);
        JMenuItem fileExitMenuItem = new JMenuItem("Exit",
                KeyEvent.VK_X);
        fileExitMenuItem.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionExit();
            }
        });
        fileMenu.add(fileExitMenuItem);
        menuBar.add(fileMenu);
        setJMenuBar(menuBar);
        
        // Setup buttons panel.
        JPanel buttonPanel = new JPanel();
        JButton newButton = new JButton("New Message");
        newButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionNew();
            }
        });
        buttonPanel.add(newButton);
        
        // Setup messages table.
        tableModel = new MessagesTableModel();
        table = new JTable(tableModel);
        table.getSelectionModel().addListSelectionListener(new
                ListSelectionListener() {
            public void valueChanged(ListSelectionEvent e) {
                tableSelectionChanged();
            }
        });
        // Allow only one row at a time to be selected.
        table.setSelectionMode(ListSelectionModel.SINGLE_SELECTION);
        
        // Setup E-mails panel.
        JPanel emailsPanel = new JPanel();
        emailsPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("E-mails"));
        messageTextArea = new JTextArea();
        messageTextArea.setEditable(false);
        splitPane = new JSplitPane(JSplitPane.VERTICAL_SPLIT,
                new JScrollPane(table)new JScrollPane(messageTextArea));
        emailsPanel.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
        emailsPanel.add(splitPane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        
        // Setup buttons panel 2.
        JPanel buttonPanel2 = new JPanel();
        replyButton = new JButton("Reply");
        replyButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionReply();
            }
        });
        replyButton.setEnabled(false);
        buttonPanel2.add(replyButton);
        forwardButton = new JButton("Forward");
        forwardButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionForward();
            }
        });
        forwardButton.setEnabled(false);
        buttonPanel2.add(forwardButton);
        deleteButton = new JButton("Delete");
        deleteButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionDelete();
            }
        });
        deleteButton.setEnabled(false);
        buttonPanel2.add(deleteButton);
        
        // Add panels to display.
        getContentPane().setLayout(new BorderLayout());
        getContentPane().add(buttonPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH);
        getContentPane().add(emailsPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        getContentPane().add(buttonPanel2, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
    }
    
    // Exit this program.
    private void actionExit() {
        System.exit(0);
    }
    
    // Create a new message.
    private void actionNew() {
        sendMessage(MessageDialog.NEW, null);
    }
    
    // Called when table row selection changes.
    private void tableSelectionChanged() {
    /* If not in the middle of deleting a message, set
       the selected message and display it. */
        if (!deleting) {
            selectedMessage =
                    tableModel.getMessage(table.getSelectedRow());
            showSelectedMessage();
            updateButtons();
        }
    }
    
    // Reply to a message.
    private void actionReply() {
        sendMessage(MessageDialog.REPLY, selectedMessage);
    }
    
    // Forward a message.
    private void actionForward() {
        sendMessage(MessageDialog.FORWARD, selectedMessage);
    }
    
    // Delete the selected message.
    private void actionDelete() {
        deleting = true;
        
        try {
            // Delete message from server.
            selectedMessage.setFlag(Flags.Flag.DELETED, true);
            Folder folder = selectedMessage.getFolder();
            folder.close(true);
            folder.open(Folder.READ_WRITE);
        catch (Exception e) {
            showError("Unable to delete message."false);
        }
        
        // Delete message from table.
        tableModel.deleteMessage(table.getSelectedRow());
        
        // Update GUI.
        messageTextArea.setText("");
        deleting = false;
        selectedMessage = null;
        updateButtons();
    }
    
    // Send the specified message.
    private void sendMessage(int type, Message message) {
        // Display message dialog to get message values.
        MessageDialog dialog;
        try {
            dialog = new MessageDialog(this, type, message);
            if (!dialog.display()) {
                // Return if dialog was cancelled.
                return;
            }
        catch (Exception e) {
            showError("Unable to send message."false);
            return;
        }
        
        try {
            // Create a new message with values from dialog.
            Message newMessage = new MimeMessage(session);
            newMessage.setFrom(new InternetAddress(dialog.getFrom()));
            newMessage.setRecipient(Message.RecipientType.TO,
                    new InternetAddress(dialog.getTo()));
            newMessage.setSubject(dialog.getSubject());
            newMessage.setSentDate(new Date());
            newMessage.setText(dialog.getContent());
            
            // Send new message.
            Transport.send(newMessage);
        catch (Exception e) {
            showError("Unable to send message."false);
        }
    }
    
    // Show the selected message in the content panel.
    private void showSelectedMessage() {
        // Show hour glass cursor while message is loaded.
        setCursor(Cursor.getPredefinedCursor(Cursor.WAIT_CURSOR));
        try {
            messageTextArea.setText(
                    getMessageContent(selectedMessage));
            messageTextArea.setCaretPosition(0);
        catch (Exception e) {
            showError("Unabled to load message."false);
        finally {
            // Return to default cursor.
            setCursor(Cursor.getDefaultCursor());
        }
    }
    
  /* Update each button's state based off of whether or not
     there is a message currently selected in the table. */
    private void updateButtons() {
        if (selectedMessage != null) {
            replyButton.setEnabled(true);
            forwardButton.setEnabled(true);
            deleteButton.setEnabled(true);
        else {
            replyButton.setEnabled(false);
            forwardButton.setEnabled(false);
            deleteButton.setEnabled(false);
        }
    }
    
    // Show the application window on the screen.
    public void show() {
        super.show();
        
        // Update the split panel to be divided 50/50.
        splitPane.setDividerLocation(.5);
    }
    
    // Connect to e-mail server.
    public void connect() {
        // Display connect dialog.
        ConnectDialog dialog = new ConnectDialog(this);
        dialog.show();
        
        // Build connection URL from connect dialog settings.
        StringBuffer connectionUrl = new StringBuffer();
        connectionUrl.append(dialog.getType() "://");
        connectionUrl.append(dialog.getUsername() ":");
        connectionUrl.append(dialog.getPassword() "@");
        connectionUrl.append(dialog.getServer() "/");
        
    /* Display dialog stating that messages are
       currently being downloaded from server. */
        final DownloadingDialog downloadingDialog =
                new DownloadingDialog(this);
        SwingUtilities.invokeLater(new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                downloadingDialog.show();
            }
        });
        
        // Establish JavaMail session and connect to server.
        Store store = null;
        try {
            // Initialize JavaMail session with SMTP server.
            Properties props = new Properties();
            props.put("mail.smtp.host", dialog.getSmtpServer());
            session = Session.getDefaultInstance(props, null);
            
            // Connect to e-mail server.
            URLName urln = new URLName(connectionUrl.toString());
            store = session.getStore(urln);
            store.connect();
        catch (Exception e) {
            // Close the downloading dialog.
            downloadingDialog.dispose();
            
            // Show error dialog.
            showError("Unable to connect."true);
        }
        
        // Download message headers from server.
        try {
            // Open main "INBOX" folder.
            Folder folder = store.getFolder("INBOX");
            folder.open(Folder.READ_WRITE);
            
            // Get folder's list of messages.
            Message[] messages = folder.getMessages();
            
            // Retrieve message headers for each message in folder.
            FetchProfile profile = new FetchProfile();
            profile.add(FetchProfile.Item.ENVELOPE);
            folder.fetch(messages, profile);
            
            // Put messages in table.
            tableModel.setMessages(messages);
        catch (Exception e) {
            // Close the downloading dialog.
            downloadingDialog.dispose();
            
            // Show error dialog.
            showError("Unable to download messages."true);
        }
        
        // Close the downloading dialog.
        downloadingDialog.dispose();
    }
    
    // Show error dialog and exit afterwards if necessary.
    private void showError(String message, boolean exit) {
        JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(this, message, "Error",
                JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);
        if (exit)
            System.exit(0);
    }
    
    // Get a message's content.
    public static String getMessageContent(Message message)
    throws Exception {
        Object content = message.getContent();
        if (content instanceof Multipart) {
            StringBuffer messageContent = new StringBuffer();
            Multipart multipart = (Multipartcontent;
            for (int i = 0; i < multipart.getCount(); i++) {
                Part part = (Partmultipart.getBodyPart(i);
                if (part.isMimeType("text/plain")) {
                    messageContent.append(part.getContent().toString());
                }
            }
            return messageContent.toString();
        else {
            return content.toString();
        }
    }
    
    // Run the E-mail Client.
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        EmailClient client = new EmailClient();
        client.show();
        
        // Display connect dialog.
        client.connect();
    }
}

ConnectDialog:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import javax.swing.*;

/* This class displays a dialog for entering e-mail
   server connection settings. */
public class ConnectDialog extends JDialog {
    
    // These are the e-mail server types.
    private static final String[] TYPES = {"pop3""imap"};
    
    // Combo box for e-mail server types.
    private JComboBox typeComboBox;
    
    // Server, username and SMTP server text fields.
    private JTextField serverTextField, usernameTextField;
    private JTextField smtpServerTextField;
    
    // Password text field.
    private JPasswordField passwordField;
    
    // Constructor for dialog.
    public ConnectDialog(Frame parent) {
        // Call super constructor, specifying that dialog is modal.
        super(parent, true);
        
        // Set dialog title.
        setTitle("Connect");
        
        // Handle closing events.
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                actionCancel();
            }
        });
        
        // Setup settings panel.
        JPanel settingsPanel = new JPanel();
        settingsPanel.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createTitledBorder("Connection Settings"));
        GridBagConstraints constraints;
        GridBagLayout layout = new GridBagLayout();
        settingsPanel.setLayout(layout);
        JLabel typeLabel = new JLabel("Type:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(typeLabel, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(typeLabel);
        typeComboBox = new JComboBox(TYPES);
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.WEST;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5505);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(typeComboBox, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(typeComboBox);
        JLabel serverLabel = new JLabel("Server:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(serverLabel, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(serverLabel);
        serverTextField = new JTextField(25);
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5505);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(serverTextField, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(serverTextField);
        JLabel usernameLabel = new JLabel("Username:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(usernameLabel, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(usernameLabel);
        usernameTextField = new JTextField();
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.WEST;
        constraints.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5505);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(usernameTextField, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(usernameTextField);
        JLabel passwordLabel = new JLabel("Password:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5550);
        layout.setConstraints(passwordLabel, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(passwordLabel);
        passwordField = new JPasswordField();
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.WEST;
        constraints.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5555);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(passwordField, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(passwordField);
        JLabel smtpServerLabel = new JLabel("SMTP Server:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5550);
        layout.setConstraints(smtpServerLabel, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(smtpServerLabel);
        smtpServerTextField = new JTextField(25);
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5555);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(smtpServerTextField, constraints);
        settingsPanel.add(smtpServerTextField);
        
        // Setup buttons panel.
        JPanel buttonsPanel = new JPanel();
        JButton connectButton = new JButton("Connect");
        connectButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionConnect();
            }
        });
        buttonsPanel.add(connectButton);
        JButton cancelButton = new JButton("Cancel");
        cancelButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionCancel();
            }
        });
        buttonsPanel.add(cancelButton);
        
        // Add panels to display.
        getContentPane().setLayout(new BorderLayout());
        getContentPane().add(settingsPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        getContentPane().add(buttonsPanel, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
        
        // Size dialog to components.
        pack();
        
        // Center dialog over application.
        setLocationRelativeTo(parent);
    }
    
    // Validate connection settings and close dialog.
    private void actionConnect() {
        if (serverTextField.getText().trim().length() 1
                || usernameTextField.getText().trim().length() 1
                || passwordField.getPassword().length < 1
                || smtpServerTextField.getText().trim().length() 1) {
            JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(this,
                    "One or more settings is missing.",
                    "Missing Setting(s)", JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);
            return;
        }
        
        // Close dialog.
        dispose();
    }
    
    // Cancel connecting and exit program.
    private void actionCancel() {
        System.exit(0);
    }
    
    // Get e-mail server type.
    public String getType() {
        return (StringtypeComboBox.getSelectedItem();
    }
    
    // Get e-mail server.
    public String getServer() {
        return serverTextField.getText();
    }
    
    // Get e-mail username.
    public String getUsername() {
        return usernameTextField.getText();
    }
    
    // Get e-mail password.
    public String getPassword() {
        return new String(passwordField.getPassword());
    }
    
    // Get e-mail SMTP server.
    public String getSmtpServer() {
        return smtpServerTextField.getText();
    }
}

MessagesTableModel:

import java.util.*;
import javax.mail.*;
import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.table.*;

// This class manages the e-mail table's data.
public class MessagesTableModel extends AbstractTableModel {
    
    // These are the names for the table's columns.
    private static final String[] columnNames = {"Sender",
    "Subject""Date"};
    
    // The table's list of messages.
    private ArrayList messageList = new ArrayList();
    
    // Sets the table's list of messages.
    public void setMessages(Message[] messages) {
        for (int i = messages.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
            messageList.add(messages[i]);
        }
        
        // Fire table data change notification to table.
        fireTableDataChanged();
    }
    
    // Get a message for the specified row.
    public Message getMessage(int row) {
        return (MessagemessageList.get(row);
    }
    
    // Remove a message from the list.
    public void deleteMessage(int row) {
        messageList.remove(row);
        
        // Fire table row deletion notification to table.
        fireTableRowsDeleted(row, row);
    }
    
    // Get table's column count.
    public int getColumnCount() {
        return columnNames.length;
    }
    
    // Get a column's name.
    public String getColumnName(int col) {
        return columnNames[col];
    }
    
    // Get table's row count.
    public int getRowCount() {
        return messageList.size();
    }
    
    // Get value for a specific row and column combination.
    public Object getValueAt(int row, int col) {
        try {
            Message message = (MessagemessageList.get(row);
            switch (col) {
                case 0// Sender
                    Address[] senders = message.getFrom();
                    if (senders != null || senders.length > 0) {
                        return senders[0].toString();
                    else {
                        return "[none]";
                    }
                case 1// Subject
                    String subject = message.getSubject();
                    if (subject != null && subject.length() 0) {
                        return subject;
                    else {
                        return "[none]";
                    }
                case 2// Date
                    Date date = message.getSentDate();
                    if (date != null) {
                        return date.toString();
                    else {
                        return "[none]";
                    }
            }
        catch (Exception e) {
            // Fail silently.
            return "";
        }
        
        return "";
    }
}

MessageDialog:

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import javax.mail.*;
import javax.swing.*;

// This class displays the dialog used for creating messages.
public class MessageDialog extends JDialog {
    
    // Dialog message identifiers.
    public static final int NEW = 0;
    public static final int REPLY = 1;
    public static final int FORWARD = 2;
    
    // Message from, to and subject text fields.
    private JTextField fromTextField, toTextField;
    private JTextField subjectTextField;
    
    // Message content text area.
    private JTextArea contentTextArea;
    
    // Flag specifying whether or not dialog was cancelled.
    private boolean cancelled;
    
    // Constructor for dialog.
    public MessageDialog(Frame parent, int type, Message message)
    throws Exception {
        // Call super constructor, specifying that dialog is modal.
        super(parent, true);
        
    /* Set dialog title and get message's "to", "subject"
       and "content" values based on message type. */
        String to = "", subject = "", content = "";
        switch (type) {
            // Reply message.
            case REPLY:
                setTitle("Reply To Message");
                
                // Get message "to" value
                Address[] senders = message.getFrom();
                if (senders != null || senders.length > 0) {
                    to = senders[0].toString();
                }
                to = message.getFrom()[0].toString();
                
                // Get message subject.
                subject = message.getSubject();
                if (subject != null && subject.length() 0) {
                    subject = "RE: " + subject;
                else {
                    subject = "RE:";
                }
                
                // Get message content and add "REPLIED TO" notation.
                content = "\n----------------- " +
                        "REPLIED TO MESSAGE" +
                        " -----------------\n" +
                        EmailClient.getMessageContent(message);
                break;
                
                // Forward message.
            case FORWARD:
                setTitle("Forward Message");
                
                // Get message subject.
                subject = message.getSubject();
                if (subject != null && subject.length() 0) {
                    subject = "FWD: " + subject;
                else {
                    subject = "FWD:";
                }
                
                // Get message content and add "FORWARDED" notation.
                content = "\n----------------- " +
                        "FORWARDED MESSAGE" +
                        " -----------------\n" +
                        EmailClient.getMessageContent(message);
                break;
                
                // New message.
            default:
                setTitle("New Message");
        }
        
        // Handle closing events.
        addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
            public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
                actionCancel();
            }
        });
        
        // Setup fields panel.
        JPanel fieldsPanel = new JPanel();
        GridBagConstraints constraints;
        GridBagLayout layout = new GridBagLayout();
        fieldsPanel.setLayout(layout);
        JLabel fromLabel = new JLabel("From:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(fromLabel, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(fromLabel);
        fromTextField = new JTextField();
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(fromTextField, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(fromTextField);
        JLabel toLabel = new JLabel("To:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.anchor = GridBagConstraints.EAST;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        layout.setConstraints(toLabel, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(toLabel);
        toTextField = new JTextField(to);
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5500);
        constraints.weightx = 1.0D;
        layout.setConstraints(toTextField, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(toTextField);
        JLabel subjectLabel = new JLabel("Subject:");
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5550);
        layout.setConstraints(subjectLabel, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(subjectLabel);
        subjectTextField = new JTextField(subject);
        constraints = new GridBagConstraints();
        constraints.fill = GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL;
        constraints.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER;
        constraints.insets = new Insets(5550);
        layout.setConstraints(subjectTextField, constraints);
        fieldsPanel.add(subjectTextField);
        
        // Setup content panel.
        JScrollPane contentPanel = new JScrollPane();
        contentTextArea = new JTextArea(content, 1050);
        contentPanel.setViewportView(contentTextArea);
        
        // Setup buttons panel.
        JPanel buttonsPanel = new JPanel();
        JButton sendButton = new JButton("Send");
        sendButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionSend();
            }
        });
        buttonsPanel.add(sendButton);
        JButton cancelButton = new JButton("Cancel");
        cancelButton.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
            public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                actionCancel();
            }
        });
        buttonsPanel.add(cancelButton);
        
        // Add panels to display.
        getContentPane().setLayout(new BorderLayout());
        getContentPane().add(fieldsPanel, BorderLayout.NORTH);
        getContentPane().add(contentPanel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
        getContentPane().add(buttonsPanel, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
        
        // Size dialog to components.
        pack();
        
        // Center dialog over application.
        setLocationRelativeTo(parent);
    }
    
    // Validate message fields and close dialog.
    private void actionSend() {
        if (fromTextField.getText().trim().length() 1
                || toTextField.getText().trim().length() 1
                || subjectTextField.getText().trim().length() 1
                || contentTextArea.getText().trim().length() 1) {
            JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(this,
                    "One or more fields is missing.",
                    "Missing Field(s)", JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);
            return;
        }
        
        // Close dialog.
        dispose();
    }
    
    // Cancel creating this message and close dialog.
    private void actionCancel() {
        cancelled = true;
        
        // Close dialog.
        dispose();
    }
    
    // Show dialog.
    public boolean display() {
        show();
        
        // Return whether or not display was successful.
        return !cancelled;
    }
    
    // Get message's "From" field value.
    public String getFrom() {
        return fromTextField.getText();
    }
    
    // Get message's "To" field value.
    public String getTo() {
        return toTextField.getText();
    }
    
    // Get message's "Subject" field value.
    public String getSubject() {
        return subjectTextField.getText();
    }
    
    // Get message's "content" field value.
    public String getContent() {
        return contentTextArea.getText();
    }
}

DownloadingDialog:

import java.awt.*;
import javax.swing.*;

/* This class displays a simple dialog instructing the user
   that messages are being downloaded. */
public class DownloadingDialog extends JDialog {
    
    // Constructor for dialog.
    public DownloadingDialog(Frame parent) {
        // Call super constructor, specifying that dialog is modal.
        super(parent, true);
        
        // Set dialog title.
        setTitle("E-mail Client");
        
        // Instruct window not to close when the "X" is clicked.
        setDefaultCloseOperation(DO_NOTHING_ON_CLOSE);
        
        // Put a message with a nice border in this dialog.
        JPanel contentPane = new JPanel();
        contentPane.setBorder(
                BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder(5555));
        contentPane.add(new JLabel("Downloading messages..."));
        setContentPane(contentPane);
        
        // Size dialog to components.
        pack();
        
        // Center dialog over application.
        setLocationRelativeTo(parent);
    }
}


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